A cave at Karain, north of Antalya, is inhabited by humans, the oldest known evidence of habitation inAnatolia. People live in the cave until a few centuries ago, making it one of the longest continuously-inhabited spots on earth.
Construction of the first temple/religious site atGöbekli Tepe near Şanlıurfa in southeastern Turkey.
Development of agriculture and pastoralism(domesticated animals) in southeastern Turkey.
Stone and Copper Age. People have already been living in Anatolia for 20,000 years. Settlement atHacılar.
The Hittite Empire flourishes with its capital atHattuşa, battles Egypt. Patriarch Abraham, who has been dwelling in Harran, near Şanlıurfa, leaves for Canaan (Israel).
The Trojan War fought between the armies of Troy and Achaea (Greece) for control of trade passing through theDardanelles strait.
The Phrygian kingdom of Mithridates flourishes atGordion, west of Ankara. Mysians invade. The great period of Hellenic civilisation in Greece and Aegean Anatolia follows. King Midas reigns in splendor, andKing Croesus of Lydia invents coinage. The kingdoms ofIonia (İzmir), Lycia (Fethiye), Lydia (Sardis), Caria(Marmaris) and Pamphylia (Side) flourish, as does the Empire of Urartu (Van).
Cyrus of Persia invades and conquers most of Anatolia.
Celts (or Gauls) invade and establish the kingdom ofGalatia near Ankara.
Rise of the Kingdom of Pergamum (Bergama) as an Anatolian power.
Emperor Constantine the Great dedicatesConstantinople as the 'New Rome,' which becomes the empire's center of government.
Reign of Justinian, greatest Byzantine emperor, builder of Hagia Sophia, largest and most splendid church in the world.
Birth of Muhammed. Revelation of the Kur'an. Muhammed's 'flight' (hijra) from Mecca to Medina.
Turkish Empire of the Great Seljuks in Iran.
Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, an offshoot of the Great Seljuk empire, established in Anatolia with its capital inKonya. Mystic poet and philosopher Jelaleddin Rumi, called Mevlana, takes up residence in Konya, writes his great works, and inspires the founding of the Whirling Dervish Sufi order.
Crusader armies cross Anatolia through the lands of theSeljuk Sultan of Rum, with frequent battles.
Conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) by Sultan Mehmet II 'the Conqueror'.
Reign of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, the great age of the Ottoman Empire. The sultan rules most of North Africa, most of Eastern Europe and all of the Middle East. His navies patrol the Mediterranean and Red seas and the Indian Ocean.
Treaty of Karlowitz, the first time in over 400 years that the Ottomans were decisively defeated and forced to sign a peace treaty as the clear losers. The mighty empire was clearly in decline.
Reign of Sultan Abdülhamid II, a ruthless despot who was the last of the powerful sultans. The European empires ask themselves the 'Eastern Question': which European nations will grab Ottoman territory when the sultan's empire collapses?
The Ottoman Empire enters World War I in alliance with Germany. Australian, British, French and New Zealand troops invade Gallipoli which is successfully defended by Ottoman forces led by Mustafa Kemal. Eventual defeat of the Ottomans, loss of most of the empire's territory, and occupation of parts of Anatolia by victorious foreign troops.
Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) organizes remaining Ottoman military units into an army of resistance, and establishes a government of resistance at Ankara.
Encouraged by Great Britain, Greece invades Anatoliathrough Izmir and presses eastward, threatening the fledgling government in Ankara.
Defeat and explusion of the invading armies. Abolishment of the last vestiges of the Ottoman Empire and Proclamation of the Turkish Republic by Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk), its founder and first president. Most ethnic Greeks in Turkey, and ethnic Turks in Greece, migrate to the opposite country.
Atatürk's reforms: equal rights for women, secular government, prohibition of the fez and the veil, substitution of the Latin alphabet for the Arabic, Turkification of city names, everyone adopts a surname, etc.
Death of Atatürk, continuation of one-party rule.
Turkey maintains a precarious neutrality during World War II.
Institution of multi-party democracy.